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    Duration: 12 week


    Women in the Bible

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  • Genesis

    Duration: 8 week



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  • Exodus

    Duration: 8 week



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  • The Books of Samuel

    Duration: 8 week


    The Books of Samuel

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    Duration: 8 week



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  • Wisdom Literature

    Duration: 8 week


    Wisdom Literature

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  • First Isaiah

    Duration: 8 week


    First Isaiah

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  • Second Isaiah

    Duration: 8 week


    Second Isaiah

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  • Daniel

    Duration: 8 week



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Take notes on this lesson

116 Notes

  1. Skip Masback

    Here is a sample note. Harry Attridge does an introduction looking directly into the camera.

  2. Ed

    Excellent overview of this gospel. I enjoyed the discussion of the fulfillment of the Old Covenant in the New. The ongoing dynamics of the relationship between the early church and the factions within the Jewish community add clarity to the meaning of Jesus’ teaching and actions.

  3. Ed

    Although Matthew writes for a primarily Jewish heritage audience, he demonstrates that Jesus has Gentile connections, from the genealogy to the presence of the Magi to his title of Son of God. Jesus’ baptism is the transitional pericope between the preparatory ministry of John the Baptist and Jesus anointed ministry as God’s “Beloved Son.’

  4. Ed

    1. It applies uniquely to Jesus as the Incarnate Son of God, but also to all baptized Christians as they become sons and daughters of the Father of Jesus.
    2. Joseph performs all of the tasks that a good Jewish father would do, even though his “fatherhood” was in name only. He needs to do this for the Matthean family tree of Jesus to make any sense at all. He is truly a righteous man, but his righteousness is based on trusting in the God who has given him a role in the revelation of the Promised One.
    3. Matthew’s audience cares deeply about how Jesus fulfills the messianic promises to Israel. I marvel at the pains Matthew takes to show how Jesus is both Messiah and Lord.

  5. Ed

    1 Religious practices/Continuity with Torah: Be perfect as your heavenly Father is perfect.
    2. Golden Rule
    3. Sinai and Wisdom traditions are summarized.
    4. Jesus is compatible with Rabbinic/Pharisaical tradition.
    5. Beatitudes are teaching tools.
    6. Jesus uses “antitheses.”
    7. Condemnation of divorce, but later struggle with the principle.
    8. Pray as Jesus did and you will do as Jesus did.

  6. Ed

    1. It reinforces it. Jesus is portrayed as the New Moses, giving the law of the New Covenant from a mountain. The Beatitudes and moral explanation parallel the Decalogue and all of the statutes found in Exodus, Leviticus, and Deuteronomy.
    2. They are all based on the principle found in the SHEMA: to love God and neighbor as you love ypurself.
    3. The admonition to love your enemies and the prohibition (with an exception) against divorce.

    1. I take the virtue of self sacrifice to be the most important. Love is presented by Jesus as a decision to care for others, no matter what the cost.
    2. I sometimes find myself identifying with those who are persecuted for righteousness sake when others marginalize my stances on personal morality and life issues.
    3. Jesus is not only the Great Teacher, but is also the compassionate savior. (Sorry, I reversed the #3s!)

  7. kmorrissey

    Joel mentions there may be more than one author of Genesis. What is the J source?

  8. roscoe

    Much like the poems The Odyssey and Beowulf

  9. roscoe

    It seems to me that we draw the line where we are comfortable with it. For instance, I can take at face value the conflict of Leah and Rachel and Rachel’s betrayal of her husband. But what of the “men of renown” who come to earth and marry its women?
    As is mentioned, we read a novella, poems, myths in Genesis.
    I think some like Genesis because it holds such lessons of right living for us by using characters who are like us. It’s real life.

  10. roscoe

    As Robert Fitzgerald writes, “If you want to read Homer, learn ancient Greek.” I am now reading Alter and it is the best I have read so far, but I cling to the KJ for its poetry. Any translation is the back side of a tapestry.
    Oh, I don’t go down the rabbit trail of the actual creation. Began something and it evolved. Still is.
    We are an image–that’s it. No more, but no less. A hedge fund if you will.
    Gender in Genesis is not ever something I think is possible to study.

  11. roscoe

    The Bible is a book of 66 chapters written in the Middle East, so all of that area is part of its writing. Can’t separate the parts entirely.
    We can use as much of Genesis as we want to have a world view, but that would present serious problems.
    It is a good book explaining things. But we have warped it, too. For example, how has such a good man as Esau be given such a horrible reputation. He tells his conniving brother, “I have enough.” A good man, the red one.

  12. Nicholas

    Very interesting how Mark ties the two stories together of Jarius’s daughter with the woman who was hemorrhaging. It’s as if Mark pauses the story line to heal the woman who has a hemorrhage and then returns back to the main plot. It does build suspense however, as the daughter who has died when Jesus does arrives is raised back to life. Similar to the story of Lazarus where Jesus tarries when he receives the news that Lazarus is ill and then does arrive until three days after Lazarus has died. It builds the suspense of the story but also shows the power of Jesus to not only heal but to raise the dead, and that even death will not stop him.

  13. huntkl

    I loved the point made about the difference between Christians and moslems. Christians believe that the Bible is translator but in any language where the Moslems only believe that the Koran is only view through Arabic Language

  14. Glenn

    If in fact Matthew was likely written in Antioch, perhaps a few decades after Paul’s letter to the Galatians, it would seem that a study of the Gentile/Jewish issues as they are dealt with by Paul in Galatians and Matthew would be interesting. Paul, obviously taking the Gentile side and Matthew giving a defense for the Jewish Christians’ perspective. In particular Paul’s view of the law in Galatians and Matthew’s view of the law is a fruitful contrast.

  15. Glenn

    Matthew definitely has overtones that lead to think of a connection with Roman emperors of the time, in which the Matthew’s community no doubt has not only awareness but some degree of trepidation. So we have this symbol of a star, which could be a Christian symbol over and against the “Julian Star” in Roman culture. Interesting that these “magi” would hail Jesus as Messiah, but would certainly not see a Roman emperor as the “anointed one”.

    Matthew is having Jesus doing the things in adherence to Torah to “fulfill all righteousness”, although with a specific point of view. Was Jesus a type of pharisee as some have argued, collecting students to begin his own school to teach his own perspective or Jewish “wisdom”.

  16. Glenn

    If Matthew’s community was the church in Antioch, Matthew’s particular connection with Jewish ancestry which includes Gentiles would be a statement as to Matthew’s belief that Jews and Gentiles can exist at peace with one another in the same community. Still the question of how to define the Christian perspective or how or whether Gentiles need to follow Mosaic Law seems open.

    Joseph is an interesting ambiguous Jewish character in Matthew. Not necessarily righteous in strict adherence to the letter of the law, but seeing his faithful following of Torah from a perspective of mercy and following revelations through dreams and being visited by God’s messengers. Jesus is somewhat like Joseph in his outlook.

  17. Glenn

    Perhaps Matthew is referring to Paul when he talks about a disciple who teaches “one of the least of these” something different. So Paul is “least in the kingdom”, obviously still in the community (but who is “less than” in the community, like the God fearers were to begin with??? Very different perspective from Paul’s thought in Galatians where neither jew nor greek, slave nor free)

    1. Kelly Morrissey

      Those videos are now live. We apologize for the inconvenience!

  18. Marc Brianvil

    The foreword has several elements that help to define what kind of work the book is. The very first word, “apocalypsis” or “revelation” has, of course, become the book’s title, although it in fact describes its content. It is useful to keep in mind that the word is singular. The book is notentitled the Book of Revelations, as it is often called. Although its imagery is complex, it finally consists of a disclosure of a single important truth

  19. Justice Moor

    I usually attend Passover with messianic Jewish friends. Each year I marvel that they attend very posh dinners at exclusive facilities.

    In Exodus 12 emphasis is made that if your household is too small to be able to justify eating a whole lamb, share a lamb with your poor neighbor. The Passover seems to be a festival that tries to encompass a large community that should include the poor.

    Never once has the messianic community that I have Passover with roasted a lamb.

  20. Justice Moor

    The Festival of Booths also has a dual meaning- one of which is an agricultural festival.


    1. Kelly Morrissey

      The readings listed here are chapters from books that were recommended by Dr. Attridge and Rev. Dr. Bartlett, but are obviously not required for the study.

  21. O.G.

    Response to questions above:

    1. Is it important whether the stories in the Books of Samuel are historical or not? If so, why?

    Yes, from a political, and historical basis, but not if all you are interested in is the story. It would probably be better for everyone if the stories weren’t true, and the people of the middle east dealt with each other in terms of co-existence in a land no one has biblical claim to – biblical claims with no merit in archaeological corroboration. No one has been chosen, no one has a Divine mandate. I prefer the fiction, and that the fiction be recognized as such, because it gives me greater leeway in embellishing the story. I’m a poet, after all.

    2. Is it important that David is not depicted as a saintly figure, but as a complex and all too human character?

    There is nothing about David to construe as saintly. The guy, as will be shown, was an adulterer, a murderer, a near regicide, a hugely ambitious ruler – quite the opposite of a saint. Besides, saints are a bit too one-dimensional to be of any use to fiction, or history – though we agree there’s not a lot of history (one stellae) to agree upon.

    3. What light do these stories shed on the institution of the monarchy, and its strengths and weaknesses?

    Remains to be seen. The intro doesn’t really go into detail as to the merits of the monarchy. We know, however, that all governments are faulty, and the best of them cohere various interests into a national whole, and go on to be more benign than tyrannical – though all are a combination of both, and are the exception.

    1. Kelly Morrissey

      You can take personal notes! Simply check the box at the very bottom of the screen that says “Make this comment private”. It will not be visible to the general public. Enjoy!

  22. O.G.

    1. Lord Acton said it, and it applies to any form of leadership, inherited or not. Power tends to corrupt; absolute power corrupts absolutely. The tendency toward corruption in inherited leadership is probably greater, as the check of elections is missing.

    2. Kingships imply a state. The state must be protected, and the king, as the embodiment of the state must be revered, as well as protected. Suddenly, treason becomes a concept, and the possibility of abuse of power is strengthened. On the other hand, if the king is not a despot, possibilities for justice are enhanced. The people have a central authority to guide their commerce and relationships. Eventually, the nation and its rulers become ensconced, and are seen as a necessary evil.

    3. I don’t think Samuel had all that much power. Power would be consolidated with a king and his government. I think Samuel was concerned for his people losing touch with G-d, becoming subjugated to temporal rule, and victims of oppression.

  23. John Seraphine

    To participants in the Northern Illinois Online Bible Study:
    A couple random notes on this lecture.
    First, you will note that instead of prefacing dates as either BC (before Christ) or AD (Anno Domini) or, year of our Lord, scholars today prefer BCE (before the common era) and CE (common era). This is to be more religiously neutral, and not to offend non-Christians.

    Related to this desire for neutrality is the designation of what Christians typically call the “Old Testament,” as the Hebrew Bible. Though, as we go forward we will note that Jews today do not accept certain books as part of their canon those Catholics call “deutero-canonical,” and Protestants call Old Testament apocrypha. Another term Jews use for their Hebrew Bible is Tanakh, which is an acronym for the parts of their collection of sacred Scripture (Torah for the 1st five books, Nevi’im, for other historical books and the prophetic books, and Ketuvim or “writings,” psalms and wisdom literature.

    Another note: Professor Attridge makes reference to the Dead Sea Scrolls (DSS) and one of their methods of interpretation of accepted Scripture. Often the DSS interpreters would say that an old text held real meaning not for its own time, but was really pointing to something much later, in the time of the DSS community. These interpretation we called peshirim (the plural of “pesher.” The point professor Attridge is making is that Matthew’s Gospel follows this same tradition of seeing an ancient text as valuable because it has its full meaning only in the interpreter’s own day. This is one more indication that Matthew is written from within a community with a Jewish background, and to an audience with a similar background.

    Another term used repeatedly in this lecture is “apologetic.” Please be aware that this does not the same as what we commonly mean as “apology.” It means “defense,” or thoughtful explanation. Also, keep in mind that, following the horrible trauma of the Jewish rebellion, the fall of Jerusalem, and the mass slaughter of many Jews, there must have been a very harsh division climate of division between Jews and Jewish Christians who accepted Jesus as Messiah. Matthew is writing a strong defense–or even laying out a strong offensive position that it was the latter who were true to the Torah, and fulfilling the righteousness of the covenant. To use the words of Luke Timothy Johnson, another New Testament scholar, Matthew was aiming his critique at “the synagogue down the street.” But keep in mind that both sides of this controversy were working in the dark shadow of the very public crucifixion and slaugher of tens of thousands of Jews by the Romans.

    Finally, note the similar ways Matthew writes his nativity and his passion stories. Jesus is opposed by secular and religious leaders who want to kill him. But he is vindicated by God, with the attestation not only of sacred Scripture, but of cosmic signs.

  24. O.G.

    1. Not even the Torah requires absolute obedience. The question is, “Is a life at stake?” There are plenty of places for obedience to take precedence – the first commandment, for instance. Ultimately, though, obedience is situational, and arguable.

    2. Again, posing these questions as binaries serves little purposes, and so the answer is to consider the situation, and “no.”

    3. Accountability. Setting forth the signs and portents. Let the people as a whole decide about leadership. Democracy is the ideal.

  25. Joseph Aaron Jamison-Parker

    Isaiah of Jersualm 1-39
    Second Isaiah (appears to have been written in Babylon by an unnamed prophet of the exile): 40-55
    Third Isaiah( was thought to reflect a time after the temple in Jerusalem was rebuilt): 56-66

  26. Adrian Bruder

    Questions for Discussion:
    1. Are there divisions in the congregation of which you are a part? What is at their roots?
    a. Gay Marriage – Literal versus cultural interpretation – Church split trying to respect assets while allowing each side to worship separately.
    2. What do you make of Paul’s claim that the cross of Christ is in some fashion or other a basic criterion of meaning and truth?
    a. Christ as both the sacrifice and the resurrection are what the prophets have pointed to being the ultimate reconciler from a fallen humanity to the one true GOD. The church is focusing and fighting about the gifts and not the sacrifice that made the gifts available to them IN CHRIST.
    3. How would you analyze the ways in which your Church community divides along lines of status or wealth? Are such divisions a major element in the life of the community?
    a. I think the more wealth the blurrier lines get. It’s complicated. Blessed are the poor vs. blessed are the poor in spirit (there is contention on what these things mean). We live in a society that places a human beings value on what he or she owns.
    4. Do we share Paul’s perspective that there is a dramatic difference between “revelation” and the world that we confront every day? What is the relationship between Christ and culture?
    a. CHRIST’s ultimate glory came from defeat. GOD values and antithetical to the values of the World which makes sense because Adam and Eve gave the World away. The Sermon on the Mount makes it clear that what God blesses and values is the complete opposite of what the World values today.

  27. Adrian Bruder

    Paul – Apollos – Cephas
    1. People are attaching to the gifts and graces that these people have. Like denominations.
    “Paul is inventing church as he goes along.”
    Apollos (from Alexandria?) – Alexandria and he is known for his eloquence. Alexandria is known for its seeking of wisdom.

    Spirituality – Interpreting or understanding scripture in a more exalted way.
    Issues with the Gifts and Wisdom that people have.

    Chloe’s people have brought him some news. Sending news to Paul at Ephesus.
    I. Divisions
    a. Who baptized them/ who they follow
    i. Paul
    ii. Apollos
    iii. Cephas (Peter)
    b. The church seeking Wisdom
    i. The wisdom of the World is counter to the wisdom of God.
    ii. GOS’s wisdom and discernment topple the wisdom and discernment of the World.
    iii. GOD’s foolishness and weakness are stronger than anything the World can produce.
    GOD will never be outdone, if there is GODLY Wisdom in man, it is from God and it will point to GOD, if there is discernment in man, it is from GOD and it will point to GOD. Why should GOD give His wisdom or His discernment to man if it will not be used to glorify Him? Why are these people seeking so desperately wisdom and discernment?
    The crux is JESUS, and wisdom and discernment come from GOD. I would assume that whoever gets those gifts get those gifts because they serve both: 1) GOD’s purpose [and] 2) Will always give GOD glory.
    If those two points aren’t being established, why would GOD lend his wisdom and discernment to those who seek it? What is their subconscious desire for obtaining it? (Their “heart of hearts”?)
    Let the one who boast, boast IN THE LORD…
    If GOD gives his wisdom and discernment to the powerful, will people believe it came from GOD?
    Will the person who is powerful think it was his all along?
    II. Paul makes it clear his focus is JESUS; his crucifixion, resurrection, and return.
    a. The spirit will save; not intellectual arguments and beautiful prose.
    III. According to Paul the SPIRIT is searching EVERYTHING even GOD.
    a. Q: in 1Corinthians 2:10 it says the SPIRIT searches everything, even the depths of GOD. If they spirit is GOD, why would it need to search. Doesn’t it know itself??
    i. I can see how the spirit helps humans understand the thought of GOD, does it search to be able to translate? Is the spirit working as a divine translator?
    b. Q: 1Corinthians 2:15-16 seems like it could be used very dangerously by someone to automatically shut down conversations about beliefs and interpretations. Any comments? What is the rubric for determine if someone is “spiritual” or not? Fruit? This seems like it could be dangerous to back up someone’s understanding absolutely.

  28. claire carter

    church of UMC most definitely- some people view the people who are not on their side as wrong…. possibly that the reconciling ministries are trying to turn UMC into something “relevant” when it is simply their interpretation of scripture that leads them to where they are. also, some people view the people who aren’t ready to accept the reconciling ministry message as unloving/unaccepting. root is in the idea of what are we called to, how do we love like Jesus, what does SCRIPTURE MEAN TO SAY
    – more that the regions are separated by wealth than that the church is separated by wealth?
    -Christ and culture. Christ has a role in culture, yet He does not completely make it up. the media we absorb can involve Christ, can be pleasing to Him, displeasing to Him, and also indifferent.

  29. JF Lacaria

    history of church – history of two aspects of the trinity>Jesus>holy spirit
    History and bio of Peter and history and bio of Paul

    Why is there no mention or anticipation of Acts in the prologue of Luke? What does it mean that Acts was not prefigured in the writing of Luke?

    Theophilus – friend, patron, community – the ones who followed God but did not yet know Jesus and were ripe to meet the Spirit

    compare the Ascension accounts: Luke 24:50-53 Then he led them out as far as Bethany, and, lifting up his hands, he blessed them. 51 While he was blessing them, he withdrew from them and was carried up into heaven.[p] 52 And they worshiped him, and[q] returned to Jerusalem with great joy; 53 and they were continually in the temple blessing God. [fast and from Bethany]
    Acts 1: 6-11 6 So when they had come together, they asked him, “Lord, is this the time when you will restore the kingdom to Israel?” 7 He replied, “It is not for you to know the times or periods that the Father has set by his own authority. 8 But you will receive power when the Holy Spirit has come upon you; and you will be my witnesses in Jerusalem, in all Judea and Samaria, and to the ends of the earth.” 9 When he had said this, as they were watching, he was lifted up, and a cloud took him out of their sight. 10 While he was going and they were gazing up toward heaven, suddenly two men in white robes stood by them. 11 They said, “Men of Galilee, why do you stand looking up toward heaven? This Jesus, who has been taken up from you into heaven, will come in the same way as you saw him go into heaven.” [after 40 days and from Jerusalem?]

    Big theme – continuity over against growth and change
    Continuity – Jesus; Jerusalem; Kingdom restoration (end of the world); the disciples
    Growth and Change – Holy Spirit; Disciples go forth to share (end of the earth); converts

    An Act and A Sermon – Sermon as text>situation>decision
    1- Pentecost
    2- Healing outside the Temple
    3- Arrest

    Barnabus Appears

  30. O.G.

    Third questions only. “Most important,” may be a bit subjective. Of course, we’re led to say David’s career as ruler, without all his peccadilloes is what’s important. Fine, as far as it goes – boundaries, the capitol city, the legacy of poet/warrior/king, but David settled none of the questions about dominion over the land, and the conflicts are current. David was a gangster, outlaw if you’d like the romantic touch, who took what he wanted, and left Israel with borders but no mandate for possession.

  31. Kelly Fulton

    “called to account”

  32. Adrian Bruder

    I. Paul takes a fatherly role of his congregation
    a. Soft and hard approach to his church. Wanted to lead by example.
    i. Authoritative and loving at the same time. Balance.
    b. Virtue is learned by seeing it.
    II. CH3V16 – “You are GOD’s temple and HIS spirit dwells in you”
    a. The curtain was ripped when CHRIST was crucified. Symbolic – Holiest of holy no longer closed?
    III. The Corinthian People feel their faith removes them from certain constraints according to the theologians. The spiritual and the physical are still very real realities.
    IV. Apostle’s means to be sent.
    V. Paul is defensive to the fact that he is an apostle.
    a. Didn’t apostles need to see Jesus after the resurrection?
    b. Theologian agrees.
    i. Paul Argues he was sent and that he saw the risen Lord when he was on the road to Damascus. People dispute it because he was not part of the original 12 or an eloquent speaker.
    c. Paul is trying to establish his authority through his letter to the church.

  33. Adrian Bruder

    Questions for Further Study:
    1. Are there any clues in the first four chapters of 1 Corinthians about what might have been dividing the Corinthian factions from each other—in addition to, or in relation to their loyalty to particular leaders?
    a. Paul elaborates in 1Cor3-10:11 that the foundation is CHRIST. It seems like people are concerned with what is being built on the foundation and not focusing on the foundation.
    b. Paul seems comfortable that whatever gets built on the foundation of CHRIST will be tested by fire. All that is done in the darkness will come to light.
    i. Paul seems to show that by belonging CHRIST, one will be saved, it seems like someone who is building a ministry on the foundation of CHRIST should expect their ministry to be tested by fire, what the fire shows will determine this persons reward or loss.
    1. He appears to seem unconcerned with the motivation on those who build because 1. The all-knowing LORD will judge and whatever is built will be tested, and the LORD “catches the wise in their craftiness.”
    2. Fire is a recurring theme throughout the bible as to purify and make holy. If there is no fire…?
    2. What picture do you get of the importance of future judgment in Paul’s warning to the Corinthians, especially in 3:10-15?
    a. See Answer on question 1
    3. And how does this talk about judgment relate to the traditional Protestant interpretation of Paul as one who insists on salvation by faith and not by good works?
    a. Paul’s emphasis on faith and not works I believe remains true based on his words. “If anyone’s work is burned up, he will suffer loss, though he himself will be saved.”
    i. If you are JESUS’, your salvation doesn’t seem in jeopardy based on your ministry not surviving the fire. – “All are yours… you are CHRIST’S and CHRIST is GOD’S
    4. What is the function of Paul’s not too friendly reminder to the Corinthians that they are still infants in Christ?
    a. They seem to be focused on the Worldly aspects of being part of The Body, I believe. I think he is chastising the church in ICor4:8-13. This faith, ESPECIALLY at that time was not one of victory but of suffering while they wait (for what they believed to be) the very near return of JESUS. It seems the Corinthians were focusing on the power and the wisdom of belonging to CHRIST so much so that they were forgetting CHRIST himself.
    Questions for Discussion:
    1. We claim that the church (and our churches) are holy, universal and apostolic. What does an apostolic church look like if the apostles “have become like the rubbish of the world.”? (3:13)
    a. If the ones who are leading are lost, imagine the ones who follow…
    2. What are the divisions we find in our own churches — around leaders, doctrines, disputes about acceptable behavior? Does Paul’s insistence that the church is not defined by its leaders but by its belonging help us in thinking about our own situation?
    a. “For no one can lay a foundation other than that which is laid, which is Jesus Christ”. I see the gospel from a very distinct lens that many people in the body may not agree with; but that my faith journey and experience will not change my lens. Instead of trying to prove those who do not agree with me wrong, I take comfort in knowing, “I am CHRIST’S and CHRIST is GOD’s and I through CHRIST get to be GOD’S also…
    3. In looking at 4:8 we realize that in important ways Paul’s words speak to our affluent society: “Already we have all you (could reasonably) want! Already you are (relatively) rich.” Should we just rejoice and be glad in that—or does this letter raise some questions about our comfort?
    a. 4:8 speaks to the church as members and not leaders. He is telling the church that is focusing too much on the leaders particular gifts and styles that to be a leader of the church is slavery in CHRIST as opposed to being a member. I don’t really think 4:8 is focusing on worldly wealth (that’s talked about all over the place) but I feel like the focus of this passage is showing that it is no prize to be Paul, or Apollos, or Peter. Their crosses are nothing compared to JESUS, but they are most certainly heavy.
    4. Do we get any clues from these chapters about what we might appropriately expect from church leaders—ordained or lay? And do those of us who are leaders learn anything about the appropriate style and strategies and grounds of our leadership?
    a. See Q#3

  34. Nancy Alaire Lorenz

    SARAH – Video Notes Compiled 10 May 2020
    Would it be helpful to describe two types of relationships which have visibility and validity in the narrative? Transactional relationships would have an equilibrium based on exchange–food and housing provided in exchange for service and labor. Nurturing relationships have the quality of continuum rather than of exchange: I care for my daughter as my mother cared for me.
    It seems reasonable to suggest that within the textual framework power works somewhat differently in each type of relationship.
    Sarah and Abraham share a nurturing relationship in which nothing is withheld from the other. Sarah will affiliate with another man in order to maintain Abraham’s life; Abraham honors Sarah and respects her right to share the fullness of his life.
    The relationship between Sarah and Hagar is rooted in transaction: Sarah provides the household in which Hagar lives and Hagar provides the labor which enables the household to function.
    When Sarah chooses to believe that the Lord has made her barren, she also chooses to rely on her own self-will to provide the son that the Lord promised. She chooses Hagar to bear Abraham’s child (as if it were Sarah’s own) and in so doing changes the relationship between herself and Hagar. Hagar enters into a nurturing relationship with Abraham and defies Sarah just as, in fact, Sarah has defied God.

  35. Nancy Alaire Lorenz

    Does the atrocity of legal, race-based enslavement of kidnapped persons from the African continent, and the enslavement of subsequent generations, as it was practiced and as it benefited white culture in the United States in the 18th and 19th centuries illuminate or shadow the life circumstances of Sarah and Hagar? In the Hebrew Bible, what can be known about the conditions of enslavement during their life spans.
    From Bible Gateway
    9 topical index results:

    ALIENS » Jews authorized to purchase, as slaves (Leviticus 25:44,45)
    EGYPTIANS » Slaves bought by (Genesis 37:36)
    COMMERCE » Articles of » Slaves (Genesis 37:28,36; Deuteronomy 24:7)
    EXPORTS » From Tarshish » Silver, iron, tin, lead, brass, slaves (Ezekiel 27:12,13)
    PROPERTY » PERSONAL » In slaves (Exodus 21:4)
    SERVANT » BOND » Captives of war became slaves (Deuteronomy 20:14;21:10-14; 2 Kings 5:2; 2 Chronicles 28:8,10; Lamentations 5:13)
    SERVANT » BOND » Slaves owned slaves (2 Samuel 9:10)
    SERVANT » HIRED » Treatment of, more considerate than that of slaves (Leviticus 25:53)

  36. O.G.

    I find this whole concept of truth by embarrassment to be a stretch by believers (scholars or not) to give credence to what has no other documentation. We’ve already heard that David may be altogether a fiction, and furthermore that the author of Samuel has given us the best sustained fictional narrative in the Hebrew Scriptures, so how about it’s just a well written story.

    As for David, and all his sins a peccadilloes, it all seems to conform to power among warlords so it’s only natural the story (true or false) be written in this way.

  37. O.G.

    Seduces, hell. That was rape.

    Beyond the learnings, which were many, my favorite thing about these lectures was how the two of you relate so closely to the main and secondary figures. You take such excitement, and in some cases pleasure, out of their foibles and accomplishments that you make them come alive. That’s the highest praise.

  38. O.G.

    also hear the song: This World it can’t Stand Long

  39. Dr. Raymond L Boothe

    Common language-Luther German Bible-Went out into the streets to capture language-Like NIV-Bible should be Bible of the people-Create access to Bible-117 woodcuts to create visual images-Emphasis on Education-Information by Guttenberg-Multiple copies-Small Bibles carried across countries-Plays many different roles-People and church-Transformed lives-16th century-Not made for theological debate-Vulgate continues to be printed because it still remained the common source-Council of Trent-King James translators-Tyndal did not survive-Goes to Germany-Under pressure-Produces New Testament-Luther had backing of major printers-What was the Reformation Bible?

  40. Dr. Raymond L Boothe

    Sola Scriptura-Free of all interventions-Debate on interpretation-Chaos-Luther and Calvin did not believe scripture only-Not the only authority-Supreme authority-Being part of the church-Being part of a long tradition-Reformers devoted study of scripture and of church tradition-Clergy as educators. More emphasis to Tindal-He shaped how the English Bible should be shaped-King James was the language the Tindal created-JK 1611-Not the first vernacular translation-Luther shapes the entire language of worship. KJ comes out of controversies-Read pref. to KJ. Product of many authors and decisions-Preface names sources-Geneva Bible known to the public-KJ with the Geneva notes-Bible in vernacular became more political in discussion. Central to the way people think-Many subjects of influence in society. Thought that heresy polluted the Bible. Central texts of OT that was important.

  41. O.G.

    does anyone read these notes? hello out there…

  42. O.G.

    You guys are having so much fun, and so am I.

  43. O.G.

    So, after Samuel, Daniel, and now into Genesis (in my peripatetic survey) it’s? pretty clear (also from your comments) that not much in the Hebrew Scriptures is fact. How on earth (where else you may ask) did we come to believe that the Bible – Hebrew and Christian – is unerring fact? Once literacy became near universal, and printing made bibles plentiful, the stories were available for all. Who convinced us they’re true when basic common sense tells us they’re not?

    Of course, I don’t expect an answer, because these comments go nowhere (that I can tell) so I’ll be looking elsewhere. Fascinating.

  44. Adrian Bruder

    1. I think in this particular instance, yes. If the member is just doing it with no remorse, I think he stepped over an ethical line; but that line is blurred and subjective. I think sleeping with your step-mother falls under that line. I think Paul says this not out of an elitist or cliquey attitude but he makes it clear that he is interested in this mans spirit. So-much-so that he has no qualms about giving up his body to Satan.

    2. I think holiness is something that is built up.

    Paul makes it clear that church members who are sexually immoral, greedy, and idolator, reviler, drunkard, or a swindler should not even have a meal shared with them. This is very dangerous ammunition in the hands of an overly righteous person.
    Let me break this down:

    Sexual Imorality – What percentage of church members only have sex in marriage and have been 100% faithful their entire marriages?

    Greed – What percentage of church members don’t focus on their material wealth or standing in this World?

    Reviler – What percentage of church members don’t gossip and cause problems in the church, home, job, or personal life?

    Drunkard – No explanation needed

    Swindler – No Explanation needed

    Idolator – What Percentage put GOD as #1 in their life? Over themselves, their family, and their career? Of the people that do, what percentage don’t Lord their spiritual superiority over everyone?

    Now the real question? What percentage of the church does none of these things?
    I would say 0 including myself. Should the pews be empty? Should we be okay with sleeping with our step-mothers?

    I say no to both of the last questions but we need to take the temperature of the cultural norms today and compare them to the cultural norms of Paul’s time making sure to leave plenty of space for prevenient, justifying, and sanctifying grace. The HOLY SPIRIT is in this too, let’s not try to do the job that belongs to someone else.

    3. I say doing anything to actively exclude members of the congregation, purposefully causing strife, putting barriers to JESUS and GOD and the SPIRIT, and [unless you’re beginning your faith journey and figuring things out] being actively against or contrary to the trinity and are actively or secretly trying to get others in the body to lose their faith; those things shouldn’t be tolerated in my opinion. Of course there are egregious things that people should get help with but that maybe they should work on before they decide to be an active part of a religious community. (Rape, incest, molestation, etc. etc.)

    4. He is trying to make the body a family. In a family there is a lot of things good and bad that you have to deal with. But even in a biological family there are things that are so sick and wrong, that they would cause a division. Blood is not always thicker than water.

    In a family it is customary to deal with your dirty laundry in the family and not out in the World like in a lawsuit, that is why he is saying that when it comes to divisions between family (in his case the Body of Christ) you are better off to suffer and be defrauded (I Cor 6:8) than to publicly shame your family.

    The same way Paul shows how the earthly body of this incestuous member is temporal (give it to Satan if it saves his spirit) so is ours. Our own bodies and suffering and Worldly standings will mean nothing when we get to where we’re heading.

  45. Adrian Bruder

    Questions for Further Study:
    1. How do you understand Paul’s instructions to married couples, to
    widows and widowers, and to “virgins” or “fiancées”?

    When you have a wife and children you are responsible for their support and their happiness. In your responsibilities to your family their might be a pressure between your commitment to them and your commitment to GOD. If the powers and principalities of this world wanted to use leverage against a believer, I would fathom that this pressure to provide could be used as a weapon. I think Paul thought that JESUS was coming much sooner than he planned and in believing that I think his advise is wise, but he knows the fleshly desires of men, if these desires cannot be controlled, get committed.

    2. In addition to the exhortation to the Corinthians not to change their status in relationship either to marriage or to slavery, Paul urges the uncircumcised not to get circumcised and the circumcised not to try to cover over their circumcision. This seems to have something to do with not changing one’s status as Jew or a Gentile, and the whole chapter may call to mind the baptismal claim of Galatians 3:28. Is this what life looks like for the community of the baptized?

    See answer to discussion Question #3

    3. Though the description of marriage is almost totally lacking in romance, are there signs of genuine mutuality—or is Paul’s vision of marriage here hierarchical?

    Culturally it absolutely was, Paul’s writings in these chapters are more egalitarian. 1 Corinthians 7:4 is much kinder than the culture at the time. Wives and husbands belong to each other essentially.

    4. Notice the distinction Paul makes between what he has learned “from the Lord” and his own opinion (7:10:7:12). Is this a helpful distinction when we think about Christian ethical practice today?

    We become like the people we surround ourselves. If there is hope for an unbeliever, that hope would shine the brightest around the company of those who are called.

    Questions for Discussion:

    1. What can we learn from Paul’s discussion of sexual ethics in and out of marriage? Or is this all so hopelessly bound to his own time that we simply leave it aside?

    See the answer to question #1

    2. How do you respond to Paul’s general claim that faithful people should not change their social status but should change their attitudes—those who mourn acting as if they rejoiced, those who were slaves as if they were free? Does this leave any room for Christian social action or do we simply try to make people feel better about the status quo?

    Although the culture has drastically changed, we are all subject to governments, laws, boss’, church leaders. Us being Christians does not free us of these obligations. But if we have the mindset that our spirits are free in Christ, I think we carry ourselves differently; even in bondage.

    3. We talk a good deal about an “inclusive” church. Does Paul’s openness to people in a variety of circumstances provide a helpful model of inclusiveness? Are there any limits to how open we should be?

    To follow the law, or to fit the cultural norm, or to be circumcised, or to eat the right food but to have the wrong heart or mind I feel nullifies the whole point. Jesus got in as much trouble as he did stressing that. If you are focused less on a physical circumcision and more on getting a circumcised heart, I think that would make the church more inclusive than it is today. It doesn’t take very much time in church culture to see it can be worse than being in middle school.

  46. Dr. Raymond L Boothe

    Prophetic works-3 put together-Woe to hope-breath of material-great part of the reformation-Isaiah prince of prophets-wide range of knowledge-humanists-reformers seeing themselves as performers and prophets-unity of knowledge-model how they understand themselves as reformers-special calling-Not foreseeing future events but the proclamation of God. Interpretation the present-focusing on the present-forseeing the kingdom of Christ-historians-what happens to the people-good or bads-Isaiah comments on the world around him-help to monarchs-judgemental-word of God tempers the ruler-Creating the “Godly state”-Struggle of the prophetic voice and monarchy-Spread God’s word-Calvin proclaims the kingdom of Christ-Psalms quite important-rebuke for idolorist people, foundation of the Christological view of the Old Testament-Pinnacle of Bible prophecy.

  47. Dr. Raymond L Boothe

    Daniel-not part of the prophetic books-set in Babylon-futuristic-Reformers likes it-very forward oriented-Reformers looked ahead-Calvin did not write on it-Luther had a low view on it-trying to understand the disappointment of the 16th century-Reformers experienced this failure also-Calvin writes on it at the end of his life-Beautiful land into which I shall not return-different points of entry-focus on exile-Geneva filled with exiles and dislocated people-covenantal theology-not a single shift-interpretation of scripture-two years later split-peasant’s war-continuous struggle-1521-2 nobody knew where everything was going-community of texts-Reformation Bible is our “Modern Day Bible”. Produced texts along with the local texts-seeing through the lens-modes of thinking.

  48. Adrian Bruder

    Questions for Further Study:
    1. Some scholars think that Paul is especially concerned about a whole group of women prophets who are praying with their heads uncovered, living as if they were already in the last days, and generally making life difficult for Paul. Do you see any evidence of such a designated sub-group in the Corinthian community?
    I try to look at this from a cultural context. It was the cultural norm at the time for married women to cover their head. What would you say today if Sister Sharon or Brother Mathew went to church services with their wedding rings removed? I am not really sure if that’s how it related culturally back then, but a wedding ring is the closest thing I could come up with. I’d like to think Paul wasn’t as sexist as most men at the time.
    2. The material about the Lord’s Supper in 11:23-25 is one of the few places where Paul draws on words attributed to Jesus himself. How is this important for Paul’s argument?
    I think he is trying to prove the point that the LORD’s super is serious and should be taken seriously. What better way than to quote JESUS on how serious it is and to bring the heaviness of the historical context that the ceremony is based on to prove that point.
    3. The suggestion that some of the Corinthians have become ill and others have died because of mistaken communion practices seems both harsh and strange to us. Are there ways to make a link between Paul’s kind of spiritual “realism” and our frequent division between spiritual matters and bodily consequences?
    I take Communion seriously and I think it should be open to all but revered. I would never condone the act not being revered but I wouldn’t be able to speak about what happens when you do not revere that sacred act. I think that’s between GOD and the person that partakes.
    Questions for Discussion:
    1. Do Paul’s distinctions between what is appropriate for a male and what is appropriate for a female provide any guidance for appropriate socialization in the church today—or is he simply hopelessly hierarchical?
    I think Paul is referring more to cultural rather than moral principles. See my answer in question 1.
    2. Where are the specific places where class, economic and educational distinctions in our churches are evident today?
    I think denominationally. There are denominations with lavish churches and different classes of congregants. Also, the neighborhood a church is located in probably plays a large role in this also. I would assume most people do not drive very long distances for church services.
    3. If you were to rethink the practice of the Lord’s Supper in your church on the basis of 1 Corinthians 11, what—if anything— would you do differently?
    Make it known why it exists, and while being open to all, letting people know how important and act it is.

  49. Adrian Bruder

    1. What do you think of Paul’s strategy, clearly at work in these chapters, to be “all things to all people”?

    Yes, he is saying meat sacrificed to idols should have no power over us for we are free in Christ, but he is also saying that if eating that meat will adversely affect a weaker brother in Christ who still fears those idols, you shouldn’t eat it.

    He says you shouldn’t worry about where the meat you buy at the market comes from, but if you know where it comes from or it is made known to you that this is a meal that comes from food sacrificed to other gods, you shouldn’t in conscience do it.

    He says that someone who works in the church such as he should be entitles to be funded and provided for by the church.

    He also says that being a slave in Christ he refuses to take the Corinthians money. I think he has a lot of people looking to knock him down at any opportunity and he held himself to a higher standard than his contemporaries out of necessity.
    2. Are there examples today of behaviors that some members of your congregation find unacceptable that others find to be morally indifferent? Do debates over such issues cause tension in your community? Does Paul offer any help in dealing with them?
    I don’t really see Methodists speaking in tongues.

    Methodists don’t like to talk about powers and principalities of darkness

    Methodist worship never gets out of control. I think they like to be more moderate in general. I think they just want to cast a wider net than other denominations.
    3. What do you make of Paul’s appeal to the Old Testament (chap. 10)? Does his “midrash” provide a model of how we should read the text?
    Why would GOD include the failures of HIS chosen in HIS word if HE didn’t intend to use those failures as guidance to getting those who are called into HIS will while keeping their own free will?
    4. Does Paul’s use of Christian worship practice have any contemporary force? Can we derive norms for our general behavior from what we experience “in church”?
    I try to look at this from a cultural context. It was the cultural norm at the time for married women to cover their head. What would you say today if Sister Sharon or Brother Mathew went to church services with their wedding rings removed? I am not really sure if that’s how it related culturally back then, but a wedding ring is the closest thing I could come up with. I’d like to think Paul wasn’t as sexist as most men at the time.

  50. Olive Grant

    Discussion/questions: Matthew 1- Talks about the genealogy of Jesus and the angel appears to Joseph. Luke 1 – talks about Zacharias and Elisabeth, the birth of Christ announced, the meeting of Mary and Elisabeth, the birth of john the Baptist and the song of Zacharias.
    Mary consented having the baby after the angel explained the whole process to her. Mary was concerned for a moment being a virgin, but after the angel told her He will be the son of God and His Divine purpose, and about her old cousin Elisabeth and with God nothing is impossible, Mary said”I am the Lord’s servant, may it be to me as you said”
    the prophecy being fulfilled of the promised Messiah. those who see their need of Christ and are desirous of righteousness and life in him, he fills with good things, the poor who seeks spiritual blessings, while the self-sufficient shall be given nothing. Application 1. respect,humility, joy,admiration and gratitude. We can learn a lot from Mary. She was devoted to God to the end. I have faith in God, but nothing compares to Mary”s. She is highly respected because she is the mother of the promised messiah, the great Redeemer.

  51. Kent Manno

    Very interesting intro video and study guide…I think most of us never realized the complexity of the book of the Bible. I was especially struck by the following quote: “German scholar named Hermann Gunkel showed they belong not to the genre of historiography but to that of legend. Legend, according to Gunkel, is originally oral tradition, while history is usually found in written form.” Oral vs. written tradition…I believe that in the oral tradition accounts can be altered from person to person. There is definite value here to the story…but lack of historic data becomes problematic.

  52. Adrian Bruder

    1. Some scholars think that Paul is especially concerned about a whole group of women prophets who are praying with their heads uncovered, living as if they were already in the last days, and generally making life difficult for Paul. Do you see any evidence of such a designated sub-group in the Corinthian community?

    I think in Corinth at the time married women covered their heads I don’t think this was exclusive to the Christian and Jewish faith but I could be wrong. This might have been bringing up a contentious debate on the Corinthian Church both within and outside the Church.

    2. The material about the Lord’s Supper in 11:23-25 is one of the few places where Paul draws on words attributed to Jesus himself. How is this important for Paul’s argument?

    He is using JESUS’ own words to show some inconsiderate members of the Body of the Corinthian Church they are ignoring JESUS by not thinking of him and excluding some members.

    3. The suggestion that some of the Corinthians have become ill and others have died because of mistaken communion practices seems both harsh and strange to us. Are there ways to make a link between Paul’s kind of spiritual “realism” and our frequent division between spiritual matters and bodily consequences?

    In the Bible there seems to be times when things are the way they are because of a spiritual elements, and others where it’s simply the way it is. To say that these things are just superstition is invalidating what Paul is saying. I don’t know if ignoring and looking down on certain members of the Body of Christ would open the door to things that are unseen, but to completely dismiss Paul you would have to dismiss Jesus, at least the way he is presented in some of the gospels.

    Questions for Discussion:

    1. Do Paul’s distinctions between what is appropriate for a male and what is appropriate for a female provide any guidance for appropriate socialization in the church today—or is he simply hopelessly hierarchical?

    I don’t believe so, It’s been a very long time since this was written. That would be like me trying to convince my spouse that I need another spouse because it’s in the bible. It just doesn’t fly anymore.

    2. Where are the specific places where class, economic and educational distinctions in our churches are evident today?

    The denomination itself. There are denominations that have primarily different racial and economic majority and the lenses that the see The WORD in tends to align to that majority.

    3. If you were to rethink the practice of the Lord’s Supper in your church on the basis of 1 Corinthians 11, what—if anything— would you do differently?

    Have it at a set time (later or at night if necessary), make sure you can’t come to the Supper early, and have a limit to what you can drink and eat.

  53. Pamela Deck

    Genesis: Luther Genesis commentary. Law and gospel. About the church.

    Meaning of literalism at this time different from today.

    Calvin. Bible accommodated to limited human understanding-accommodatio. Covenant between God and God’s elect (predestination theology)- God and Abraham. Video: God as author of evil as humanity had no choice in Garden of Eden (will research this one!_

  54. Adrian Bruder

    1. There seems to be a lot of denominational contention between speaking and interpreting tongues and prophesying. Some don’t believe in it and others think that those gifts were exclusive to the early church. I have never had the gift of speaking in tongues but I think it would be foolish and honestly a waste of my time trying to figure out whether someone genuinely has that gift.

    The vibe that I have received from members of the Methodist tradition that I belong to seem to scoff at Christians who believe in spiritual forces, tongues, and prophecy as something that was done in the past when The Body didn’t know better. I definitely don’t agree but I don’t have the desire to prove myself “right.” I have to work within the borders of one of the very denominations where I can be myself.

    2. Yes, we live in a culture where freedom and independence seem paramount to anything and everything. It’s probably terrifying realizing that you can’t do it all; but it’s also kind of nice that you’re not responsible for everything. I feel society sets us up to think we need to fix everything and we are responsible for everything in our lives. Paul is essentially telling The Body, do what GOD made you to do and let your sisters and brothers do the rest. Does the World operate in the tenets of Paul? No, but I don’t think a Worldly church will get “The Body” where it needs to go anyway.

    3. Yes, experience has taught me that the wise solutions are rarely extreme.

  55. Adrian Bruder

    Questions for Further Study:
    1. How do you think Paul’s reminder of the proclamation of Jesus’ resurrection relates to what he says about the resurrection of believers? Looking at it from the other direction, does what Paul says about the resurrection of believers give us any clues to his understanding of Jesus’ resurrection?

    I see Paul telling the Corinthian Church that their resurrection requires a prerequisite of CHRIST’S resurrection to be a possibility. He points to prophetic word as his guidepost. “As it is written” so he says. Going as far to say that CHRIST’S resurrection is the firstfruits, our resurrections will come later.

    2. Notice the way in which Paul uses analogies from nature (vss. 36-42) to try to explain his view of the resurrected body. Do you find such arguments helpful here? Where are other places where we might look at the relationship between the natural world and the world of faith?

    Paul is saying that the resurrection will be neither of soul or of “natural” bodies but of spirit. There is a distinction here between soul and spirit.

    Let’s go to Hebrews 4:12;

    For the word of God is living and active, sharper than any two-edged sword, piercing to the division of soul and of spirit, of joints and of marrow, and discerning the thoughts and intentions of the heart.

    Why would GOD need to divide the soul from the spirit? This spirit that is being spoken of, can it be measured? Can it be weighed?

    3. Paul never writes down a systematic discussion of the relationship of Jesus to God in his letters. If you had only this chapter, how might you describe Jesus’ role in God’s plan. Look at the material on Adam in vv.45 ff and about the consummation of history in vv. 24-28.

    Looking at this chapter an this chapter only Paul is presenting the hierarchy of

    GOD the FATHER–>JESUS subject to GOD–>us and ultimately all things subjected to JESUS

    Zooming out a little bit though…

    JESUS is GOD, but also fully man. GOD has never been man, I think JESUS became fully man because there are things GOD can’t do being only GOD. JESUS always put himself under GOD’S authority. John 5:43 says, “I have come in my Father’s name, and you do not receive me,” and in John 8:54 “If I glorify myself, my glory is nothing. It is my Father who glorifies me, of whom you say, “HE is our GOD”.”

    I interpret this as Jesus coming to fulfill the scriptures, begin the process of eliminating the chaos that the the first man invited into this world, begin the process of reconciling man to GOD through HIM of which HE HIMSELF subjects HIMSELF to by eventually “destroying every rule and every authority and power” that the first man has invited.

    HE tells us after his resurrection that HE is leaving and going to the FATHER who is greater than him (his words according to John), the Holy Spirit is coming in his place, and the that ruler of this world who has no authority over HIM is coming too; JESUS is acting on the FATHER’S will.

    Questions for Discussion:

    1. David Bartlett once preached an Easter sermon on this text where he tried to sound very much like Paul, saying that what the Corinthians seemed to think was that Jesus had risen from the dead but that none of the later Christians would do so. A very wise member of the congregation came up afterwards and said: “That’s exactly what I believe.” How would Paul respond to this? How would you?

    I see Paul is straddling two ideals. He wants to make it clear that the resurrection will be something of substance, something that can be definitely pointed to and marked in history, but it will not be the bodies we have today; we aren’t going to rise out of our graves looking the way we went into them. I feel he is saying in a very Pauline way, “You’re both wrong.”

    2. In Christian funerals and memorial services we often hear that the person who has died has “gone to be with God.” Or is “in heaven with the saints.” There are some New Testament passages that might suggest such a hope, but there is no such claim in 1 Corinthians 15. Does it make any difference whether Paul’s view of death and resurrection is right or whether the more common view reflected in our funerals is right?

    Paul is always talking about death as being “sleep” or suspended. I have been recently introduced to the concept of paradise vs heaven. I was raised in the belief that you are with the Father at death until heaven is established. I don’t have a very strong basis or conviction for one or the other. From my understanding Jewish faith was more focused on generational blessings from GOD on this Earth building up as you please HIM. I don’t believe the dead are in heaven because heaven hasn’t been established yet from my understanding. Heaven will be on Earth from my understanding.

    3. Look at the way Paul ends the chapter: “Therefore,mybeloved,be steadfast, immovable, always excelling in the work of the Lord, because you know that in the Lord your labor is not in vain.” How do these exhortations follow from all that he’s been saying about resurrection? Or is this just like the parental PS “Don’t forget to finish your final paper before you come home for Christmas”?

    I feel he is closing his letter and trying to tie it all together. You’re worldly yokes might be broken in Christ but it’s not wise to do whatever you want because you are a free man; the governing darkness is still very much your enemy. Don’t get sloppy, JESUS is coming, is what I get from this letter.

  56. Sherry Liebisch

    3. people would like to know how things are made or creation on earth.
    they don’t it’s the same no matter what.

  57. Sherry Liebisch

    4. not in my apinion , to me god was just making people and a mate for adam.

  58. Pamela Deck

    Apocalyptic works produced by persecuted and marginalized communities, not the ruling groups.

  59. Alfred B. Holt

    “What is in the Bible was determined in the 16 century”. Bruce Metzger, the late Princeton University Professor, would disagree.

  60. Paul Trejo

    The viewpoint of Dr. Josephine M. Ford remains unheard by the modern school.

  61. Olive Grant

    Biblical Marriage: Marriage in the Bible/ New testament had different goals of a marriage than today.
    Marriage in the Hebrew Bible: This wasn’t based on a romantic relationship, but a brokered agreement between two families, in which they hope will bring children, proper household and ecomomic stability. The father has the power to choose for his daughter, to control family line. Sarah/Hagar, value in actions. In Sarah/Abraham’s marriage, the important goal was for Sarah and Abraham to have a son, more in important tha momogamy. The marriage was between man/woman and Sarah’s slave Hagar.(gen 16).
    Tamar(totally different) Tamar’s husband Er, died before they had a child. It was iportant to have a male heir for Er, being the eldest son to carry on the line. traditionally the dead man’s brother would marry his wife to bear that son, but in Tamar’s strange story that didn’t happen, instead the formula was (dead) man, a woman, and dead man’s father. Dr. Lin, reminds us that the romance is always chastity( part of the woman)by preserving a pur line. The amount of people in the marriage and their relationships might be different, but have the same goal(preserving) keep the family line in tact with a male heir.
    New Testament: Ancient christian didn’t have wedding in church. Marriage/religion were interrelated only in the way we control our behavior.Marriage in the Greco-Roman world were civic affair until medievil times. Marriage became a formal sacrament in the catholic church at the council of Trent 1563. They too wanted to preserve their lineage.Only male heirs in the Greco/roman world could inhert family property, it was important for them to preserve the future generations.
    Paul wrote in his many letters in the New Testament, many others, was Jewish, his adice on understanding of sexuality. He said it’s a passion driven(anger) and it was something that you have to learn to control and not let it take control of you. Paul was quite clear to the Corinthians “to the unmarried and widow’s I say that it is well with them to stay unmarried as he was” and if they ca’t practice self-control, then get married, it’d better to be married than living in sin.(1cor 7:8-9). Dr. lin stated “marriage for Paul is like a haircut in that it tends to a periodic need” marriage helps to control passion in a saf way.
    On the other hand marriage could be distracting , because partner get caught up in sex and the need of the spouse. Paul ‘s advice comes in the context of his expectation that Jesus is coming back soon.why bother with marriage, when the end is so near? this is only keeping us back fro the urgent task of prayer and caring for each other as on community . Paul thinks marriage is not for everyone. As for Paul beautiful “love is patient, love is kind” Paul was not teaching about romantic love, rather he was teaching about communial life, especially each individual’s spiritual gifts. the deep love of God. he love us and we must love him too.

  62. Alfred B. Holt

    The word glossolalia is never used in the New Testament.

  63. Ellen M Bateman

    Paul is also at work to distinguish Christians from Greco-Roman pagans & cultists where sex plays a role in mimicking and praying in hope for earth’s fertility. Sex, regeneration are key symbols (imperatives) where the fruit of the earth sustains mankind. Paul wants to convince that life in Christ transcends earthly concerns? Or, Paul fails to consider how Christian’s will eat? The retort that “not by bread alone ” is a tough sell, I’d imagine.

  64. Ethan Tyler

    The similarities between Genisis 1 and Mesopotamian stories speak to the wider social and cultural milieu of the ancient Levant. They mention a difference between two creation stories within the Genesis, the first dealing with a sort of watery creation and the second detailing creation around the Garden and explaining man’s role in tilling the soil of the Earth. Both of these stories seem to have relations to other traditions. Within the watery abyss as they say, we have similarities of the Enuma Elish and Marduk’s fight with Tiamat to calm the watery formless chaos. Also, as they brought up, the creation of humanity as tillers for the garden also seems to parallel the creation of man to replace the Igigi gods as tillers of the soil in Sumerian/Akkadian myths. Nothing seems 1-to-1, but there are very general themes or ideas that connect the practitioners of ancient Mesopotamian and Canaanite religions. After all, Abraham is supposedly from Ur, plus the conquest of Palestine by the Neo-Assyrians, and not to mention the exilic periods in Babylon itself. Surely streams mix and narratives will share some similarities.
    In Genisis 1 also we get a “terse” creation, as Dr. Collins calls it. Which seems apt. There isn’t a stoooory really, especially when compared to the Garden narrative. Rather, Genesis 1 is a check-marked portrayal of events. Perhaps it was simply a memory guide, or a “de-mythologized” account of creation to juxtapose to a possible other ancient hypothetical account with more action or agency, but I do find this almost bare-bones portrayal of events to be very interesting in its terseness.

    I will admit, I enjoy the KJV for its flair, and its vast effect on the English language. Are there “better” translations out there? Yes, probably, but I do tend to enjoy this one haha.
    Also I view that any translation, may it be “more” or “less” accurate, is still an act of artistry and creation and I don’t view it as an inherently flawed or vastly inferior product. But, that being said, there will of course be differences in how wording is approached. Like the example they give, with “In the beginning”/”In the beginning when”, that will change how one envisions (or really attempts to envision) creation as process. And how to translate, or even understand, the “tohu wa bohu” phrasing of the murky primeval depths: without form and void, formless and empty, chaos and waste. All of these translations carry a sort of emotional or contextual difference (at least to me).


    It is fascinating to consider how these texts might differ in Jewish interpretation v. Christian interpretation.

    1. Kelly Morrissey

      Also from Drs. Collins and Baden: Traditional Christianity takes Isaiah 7 as a prophecy of Jesus.


    I have heard it argued from the pulpit that Isaiah opposes ANY earthly pleasure, not merely “drinking or playing music.” I would certainly be interested in reading what other class participants and administrators might say in regard to this.

    1. Kelly Morrissey

      From Drs. Collins and Baden: We see no basis for saying that Isaiah opposes any earthly pleasure

  67. Alfred B. Holt

    The apostle Paul was not inventing Christianity like modern denominations. Paul was teaching and acting on a tradition that had been handed down. This is why Paul states in 1 Cor. 11:23 “For I received of the Lord that which I also delivered unto you (KJV). Paul had received the tradition of not only the Lord’s Supper but his entire message. This why Paul warned the ekklesia in Galatia not to receive another message other than which he had preached (Gal 1:6-8).

  68. Mary Marshall

    I don’t agree with the sexual implications. If he has traveled a long way and is thirsty then it makes sense that he wait at the well for someone with a bucket to come along so he can ask for a drink of water. Instead of happening in a bar, with pick up implications in current day, it could just as easily be happening at a soda machine, McDonalds, or a gas station if he is looking for a drink.

  69. Natan Sales de Cerqueira

    Why can’t I mark this lesson as complete?

    1. Kelly Morrissey

      We think this feature may be an older version of the website software. We’re looking into it.

  70. Dominic Flamiano

    1. The historical accuracy of the Books of Samuel are not as important as the narrative of the initiation of the kingship and the characters of David, Saul, etc.
    2. Portraying David as not only a hero warrior and king but as a complex and sinful man, needing of redemption is important. As is David the pslamist and lyre player is important to portray a fully alive human.
    3. Monarchy as a unifying force is important for the development of Isreal, the weakness of abuse of centralized power not balanced and checked by the will of the people is also illuminated.

  71. Pamela Deck

    Society and religious leadership assumed the worst about Mary Magdalene’s identity.
    We see Mary and the other women’s true devotion by staying with Jesus when the others had left.


    This video is not available

    1. Kelly Morrissey

      Thank you for letting us know. I have updated the lesson and it appears to be working now.

  73. Pamela Deck

    What happens to the Jew/Samaritan conflict throughout their conversation? What is the purpose of including the detail of her ethnicity in the story? Jesus gives us an example of bridging ethnic divides in this and the Parable of the Good Samaritan. He also raises the status of women by including them and speaking with them, which was against social norms of the time.

  74. Pamela Deck

    3. The husband has all of the power, even if only suspicious. The wife has none and must go before the Priest for the test. The wife also has no power to test her husband.

  75. Pamela Deck

    Excellent points in the video. One especially is Male farmer=fertility : Female mother=fertility.

  76. Dr Isaiah Otis Reid JD Law Student

    I really enjoyed to learn more about our Founding Fore-fathers If Faith.

  77. Dr Isaiah Otis Reid JD Law Student

    The Professors Does An Amazing Job Breaking Down The Book Of Genesis That No Matter What Your Level Of Understanding Is, They Explain The Book Of Genesis In Such An Simplicit Way It’s Easy To Comprehend.

  78. Dr Isaiah Otis Reid JD Law Student

    Learning new insights into the Book Of Genesis The Book Of Beginnings.

  79. Dr Isaiah Otis Reid JD Law Student

    It’s amazing to see God loves for humanity is even greater than mankind straying away from his Creator.

  80. Dr Isaiah Otis Reid JD Law Student

    The history of The Call Of Abraham is absolutely amazing.

  81. Dr Isaiah Otis Reid JD Law Student

    The story of Joseph is really an interesting one to learn about.

  82. Dr Isaiah Otis Reid JD Law Student

    I believe that God chose Abraham, because stated in the scriptures God said I know Abraham will command his children after him. In other Abraham said I will train my offsprings to have faith in God and to get to know and trust God.

  83. Dr Isaiah Otis Reid JD Law Student

    Great presentation about God Promises and Plan To Abraham.

  84. Dr Isaiah Otis Reid JD Law Student

    Jacob life is very interesting seeing how he pursued God plan and purpose for his life.

  85. Dr Isaiah Otis Reid JD Law Student

    I believe that God chose Abraham because Abraham was a man of faith. The Bible tells us that God has given to every man which means mankind. God has given all of humanity a measure of faith. Abraham faith grew in God simply by taking Him At His Word. God made Abraham a promise and scripture tell’s us Abraham believed God and it was accounted to him as righteousness.

  86. Dr Isaiah Otis Reid JD Law Student

    It’s truly amazing how God visited or appeared to Joseph in a dream, then he had to go through the process before the promise would come to pass. Then it’s amazing how the fulfilling of the prophetic dream would come to pass in Joseph life in a place far from where his birthplace happened. God lead him into a far country so Joseph had to depend totally on God. Like in the days time especially during these unprecedented time’s dealing with cov-19 Surely God who cannot change will see us through these difficult days, He still has a plan for our individual lives, families, and The Church.God plan will always stand the test of times.

  87. Dr Isaiah Otis Reid JD Law Student

    The Book Of Isaiah The Prophet, It’s one of the most amazing books out of the 66Books
    In The Bible. His prophetic ministry had some of the most interesting prophecies that God has revealed to His Servants.
    The Book Of Isaiah The Prophet is undoubtedly known as the Book That God Chose To Prophecy or to foretell about The Coming Messiah.


    Interpretation Questions:
    Contemporary readers often wonder how we can understand Jesus’ eschatological language, especially in the Olivet Discourse (chapters 24 and 25). During his ministry, Jesus insists that the end is imminent, but it hasn’t come yet. What does this eschatological language mean for readers today? The judgement for the Temple gives us an understanding that Jesus first preached to the Jewish people about how to be happy with Beatitudes and finding happiness in His Father. Now in the Olivet Discourse Jesus begins with curses and woes and finishes his statements with destructions of the Earthly home to give rise to a spiritual New Temple. We should use these words as inclination to never use are earthly homes as a place for selfish needs/happiness to be met but to find our happiness in Jesus New Temple near the tabernacle.

    In what ways does Jesus’ “triumphal entry” into Jerusalem fulfill prophecies from the Hebrew Bible (e.g. Isa. 62:11 and Zech. 9:9)? What is the ancient significance of him riding a donkey instead of a more powerful animal, like a war horse? In Isaiah Jesus returning to Jerusalem at this powerful time during the Jewish Passover that Jesus has proclaimed to the ends of the Earth his divine message and now those who seek him will never be forsaken; Zion is Saved. This in Zechariah he humbly rides a donkey your king is coming to YOU! This a battle for a Savior humbly giving His life for His people. Not a battle of offensive destruction of people by a giving of God to us.
    Reflect on the ways that violent passages about slavery, like the one in 24:45-51, have been used throughout history. How can scholarly interpretation of these teachings responsibly honor that history? This is a waiting game. We can chose to ignore that God knows our inner most desires and be on earth to serve ourselves or know that if we follow His instructions that day we come face to face with our Lord we have done as much as we are capable to serve Him on Earth. We are only slaves if we do not shose to serve God.
    Application Questions:
    Jesus’ double-love commandment (combining Deut 6:5 and Lev 19:18) is an important guiding principle for Christians today. How does this play out in practical terms in your life? What does it mean to you to “love God and love neighbor” simultaneously? I believe beginning with love of God and giving of one’s self to His mission allows a person to see the ego and selfish tendencies. When those sins/personality flaw come to surface, a person is more likely to want to change. This leads to how is the easiest way to change oneself but to help others in need. God teaching to help others in turn helps everyone become a better version of themselves.

    Jesus’ condemnations of the Jewish leadership in chapter 23 can be troublesome, not least because interpretation of this passage has fueled anti-Judaism over the centuries. Does this contradict the teaching in 5:44 to love one’s enemies? How does Jesus’ animosity in 23:1-36 cohere with the loving images and hope expressed in 23:37-39? Should we read these passages as critiques of established churches and/or Christian leaders today? The fifth an final Sermon addressed the leaders of the church that are choosing to not look inward or hold themselves accountable. It is not a hate driven speech; on the contrary it is a speech of justice. The end of Chapter 23 words allow the listener to realize that this fate of those who are not open to a true change in heart pass their sins to the next generation. People who act and teach in ways of hypocrisy, power, blind teaching, poor almsgiving, and greed in ways of clothing and burial plots will only give rise too future generations that do not love God and neighbor more than self.

    What do you make of the harsh language of judgment in chapter 25? To what do you think the “eternal fire” (25:41) and “weeping and gnashing of teeth” (25:30) refer? Does God decide beforehand who will be “sheep” and who will be “goats,” or does this depend on how we treat those in need (25:31-46)? Jesus’ parables in Chapter 25 lay out that it is a personal choice to deny a relationship with God, take care of the forgotten and outcast and refuse to use the God given graces to benefit others here on Earth. I agree with CS Lewis that the door to hell is closed from the inside of Hell. God never damns anyone to Hell, people allow themselves to a place of weeping and gnashing of teeth because they refuse to let go of selfish needs and wants.

  89. Dr Isaiah Otis Reid JD Law Student

    This is such an great point that our Professors brought out about the Prophet Isaiah. I believe that displaying the king as shepherd first. I believe that seeing Jesus as shepherd before He’s seen as King. Was a prophecy being fulfilled that traced back to David who God raised up as a shepherd before God raised him up to be king.

  90. Dr Isaiah Otis Reid JD Law Student

    Yes I believe whole heartedly based on the written word of God, That according to the Prophet Isaiah prophecy, God would send His only begotten Son as Redeemer, Savior, King Of Israel wrapped in swaddling clothes, as a child who would be born to a virgin named Mary who haven’t never been with a man.

  91. Dr Isaiah Otis Reid JD Law Student

    The Prophet Isaiah made it very clear that his messages pointed out the children of Israel sins, as well individual sins against God.

  92. Dr Isaiah Otis Reid JD Law Student

    The Spirit is emphasized or is seen as the part of man where God desires to communicate to mankind, where as the flesh is weak and decay’s everyday.

  93. Andrew Stafford

    1. I believe there is, but I like how it skips before the birth narratives and the formation of everything to make the claim that this revelation of God that we have existed even then.
    2. Life and light are both references to creation as well
    3. Light evokes thoughts of order and state of non-ignorance. Life

  94. Jesse Griffin

    I suppose many people will find stories that line up with their understanding of reality or with indications of practices of the time period to be more probably “historical” than stories that do not line up. For example, if child sacrifice were a phenomenon in the ancient Near East, then Abraham’s near sacrifice of Isaac is more probable than, say, stories of people living to be multiple hundreds of years.

    I think we can find folk tales, morality stories, religious and societal polemics, poetry, myth, legends, and religious and cultural etiologies in Genesis.

    Genesis has it all! You can find religious myth and the actions of the gods, but a reader can find stories of intrigue and sibling rivalries. The Joseph story itself is just one good mystery story!

  95. Don Reiter

    Joel: The past is a foreign country. They do things differently there.
    The only OT consistency is that Yahweh is the God of Istrael.

  96. Dr Isaiah Otis Reid JD Law Student

    The Prophet Isaiah stories about Assyria was an symbol of The Children Of Israel captivity if they would not turn from there sins and return to God with their whole heart.
    Also The same law applies to us today as the modem church of Jesus Christ.

  97. Paula Wright

    Excellent Introduction to the Book of Genesis.

  98. Dominic Flamiano

    Hinton and Bartlett: Mark 1st lecture
    who was it for?
    strawman foil of the Pharisees, fair basis for current Anti-Semitism?
    miracles in the post-Enlightenment (reductionist nominalist) post-Modern world?
    open to aspects of reality beyond reason and rational measurement and scientific reproducibility
    transcendent reality
    ok, really, you can’t trust a Native American’s opinion of the cowboys? what, then you can’t trust a black person’s views on slavery or a woman’s view on rape? come on. I love and admire the late Professor Reverend Bartlett and appreciate his comments, but that one can’t be left lie without a repoiste.

  99. kristie rubendunst

    I think of the Bible, other sacred texts, and ‘histories’ (oral and written) as subjective and, in this sense, incomplete — thus, ever-revelatory. The lens is always “flawed,” that is to say, that anything that comes from the mouth or pen of a human being cannot be separated from that author’s own context, lived (and learned) experience, and subjective re-membering of same. Yet, it is human nature to cast our nets, searching for context and meaning, so that we might know our purpose and place behind the fact of our own existence. Genesis authors seek to capture and preserve wisdom previously passed on through oral tradition at a time of social collapse and fragmentation (e.g., the Babylonian exile). Thus, Genesis has many references to uprooting and survival (e.g., the stories of Abraham and Moses), and the search for place and identity, such as Adam and Eve eating of the Tree of Knowledge, and the story of Jacob. It is this ‘incompleteness’ and search for answers and the belief in a God that promises revelation that become the root and sap of the sacred text and, eventually, our faith.

  100. Dr Isaiah Otis Reid JD Law Student

    It’s amazing to see how our Instructors break down The Prophet Isaiah life and prophetic call and assignments.

  101. Elizabeth Doolittle

    What is of particular interest to me is that these forms of wisdom instruction were not necessarily tied to a particular view of the world In the Wisdom of Solomon, unlike the other three, postmortem judgement is essential for living a moral life.

  102. Elizabeth Doolittle

    1. Revealed law versus natural law. Yes, an increasing number of us look to natural law as truer than revealed law.
    2. These are still important to us, because as we heard in the lecture, these understandings are international and interfaith. a common language for us all.
    3. Wisdom in contextually and culturally dependent as we hear in the lecture.

    Life is the process of finding the instruction that fits us best, and learning from our experiences based on the wisdom we choose.
    Yes the bible is instructional for every day life, thought not literally.
    No, biblical wisdom is just as valuable, even though we don’t know exactly how it came to be.

  103. Dr Isaiah Otis Reid JD Law Student

    I feel that the Prophet Isaiah writings In this letter truly inspiring. I believe it really points out the future of the children of Israel state and fate in God.

  104. Dr Isaiah Otis Reid JD Law Student

    Also I wanted to bring out one more key point about Isaiah prophecy and how it defines Apocalypse inspired information, knowing that according to one Theologian Who Defined Apocalypse To Be The Mother Of Theology, knowing that Theology Is Simply Defined As The Doctrine of God, The Trinity, And God Divinity And Divine Nature.

  105. Dr Isaiah Otis Reid JD Law Student

    I truly enjoyed how our Professor brought out the point where Isaiah the prophet wrote arise and shine for your light has come, God was encouraging His people through His servant that He was allowing His Glory to shine on them.

  106. Elizabeth Doolittle

    done by hand

  107. Elizabeth Doolittle

    1. The beginning of wisdom is the fear of the Lord, an attitude of humility and reverence that recognizes our dependent status as creatures.
    2. The general ethics of proverbs, supports the idea that the wealthy are successful because they have done all the right things. But we know today, that this is not a constructive assumption. In fact, the “underserved” may also be good, but have less fortune. This is a preferable attitude for politics today, at least for Democrats. In religion, this is exclusivist, and not a empathetic view toward the religious other.
    3. Origins of the bible as collections, The only reason it makes a difference is that we need to recognize that different words pertain to different circumstances. Interpretation depends on the context.
    4. We often hear proverbs read in church as adults. Proverb type sayings are the kind of thing we use to teach our children. This is because proverbs are based on traditions hardened into dogma, and not real observations.
    5.When proverbs are presented in church, we take them to be truth, as we do when our parents speak them to us as children.
    6. No, the opposite. if Jesus was teaching love thy neighbor, he would have been going against the idea that the world is as it should be, and that the wealthy are always right.

  108. Dr Isaiah Otis Reid JD Law Student

    It’s amazing how the prophet Isaiah prophecies dated back and confirmed the prophecies that some of the earlier prophets had prophecies in earlier times b.c. and the prophet Isaiah prophecies would also refer to A.D. referring to future events scheduled to take place in the book of Revelations.

  109. Dr Isaiah Otis Reid JD Law Student

    I’m so amazed about how God through his Holy Spirit expresses His love, judgement and Justice towards the children of Israel then God illustrates and demonstrates His grace and mercy inspite of their sin.

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